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During the colonial era Central America formed the Captaincy General of Guatemala. Central America declared independence from Spain in 1821, shortly joined Mexico, and then formed a federal republic. Struggles between Guatemala and the other provinces and between liberals and conservatives led to the federation's demise. By 1840 the federation had ceased to exist. Later attempts of reunification all failed, though since 1993 the Central American republics cooperate in the Central American Integration System (SICA).