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Reports of chynocephaly (having the head of a dog or jackal) can be traced to Greek Antiquity. The physician Ctesias and the traveller Megasthenes placed them in India. In the middle ages, Giovanni da Pian and Marco Polo made reference to them, while the theologian Ratramnus debated whether they should be considered human or not. Various stories have placed them in Scotland, Canaan, Cyrenaica, and the Andaman Islands. The country 'Chananea' comes from the German poet Walter of Speyer. In the account by Sir John Mandeville, the people were known as the Nacumerians.