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The Crusades were a series of wars in which European armies tried to re-establish Christian control over the Holy Land. The First Crusade was called by Pope Urban II in 1095. The crusaders managed to wrestle control of much of the Levant from Muslim hands and established a number of states led by noblemen from European Christian dynasties. The most powerful of crusader states was the Kingdom of Jerusalem; other states included the County of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch and the Country of Edessa. Later crusades were less successful. Muslim (Arab and Turkic) armies managed to push back the Crusaders and the last Crusader controlled city, Acre, fell to the Mamluks in 1291.