Codex Gamicus

Desert Strike: Return to the Gulf, commonly known as Desert Strike, is a shoot 'em up video game released by Electronic Arts (EA) in February 1992 for Sega's Mega Drive.[1] The game was later released on several other formats, including a much upgraded version for the Amiga home computer. The game was inspired by the Gulf War and depicts a conflict between an insane Middle Eastern dictator and the United States. The player controls a lone Apache helicopter and attempts to destroy enemy weapons and installations, rescue hostages and capture enemy personnel, while managing supplies of fuel and ammunition.

The lead designer, Mike Posehn, had no video game experience prior to developing Desert Strike. Inspired by Choplifter, he aimed to create a nonlinear game with smoothly animated vehicles. Posehn, a PhD in Mechanical Engineering, developed a camera system with momentum to mimic realistic helicopter movements. Three-dimensional (3D) modeling was used to generate the vehicle sprites, which were later touched up on the pixel level with color.

Desert Strike was a strong commercial success: it was a chart-topping best seller and at the time Electronics Arts' highest ever selling game. The game also received a favourable critical response, with several magazines awarding scores of over 90%. Reviewers praised the game's enjoyability, mix of action and strategy, graphics and sound. There was some controversy regarding the game's subject matter, with commentators criticising it as in poor taste due the proximity of its release to the recently ended Gulf War.


Desert Strike depicts an antagonist named Kilbaba who seizes control of an unnamed, fictional Gulf state, installing himself as dictator. The United States sends a lone helicopter to destroy Kilbaba's army in a series of swift strikes.[1] The game's plot was felt by commentators to be a thinly disguised reference to the Gulf War and comparisons were drawn between Kilbaba and Saddam Hussein,[2] and between the game's unnamed desert setting and Iraq.[3][4]


File:Desert strike gameplay.png

The player's Apache engages anti-aircraft weapons in order to attack the grounded aircraft.

Desert Strike is a shoot 'em up game in which the player pilots an AH-64 Apache helicopter. The game is less frantic than typical shoot 'em ups, with the addition of greater strategic elements.[5] The action takes place on open, multi-directional scrolling levels viewed from an isometric perspective.[2] The player views the action from outside the helicopter, rather than from within the cockpit.[6]

Levels consist of several missions, which are based around the destruction of enemy weapons and installations, as well as rescuing hostages or prisoners of war, or capturing enemy personnel.[7] The Apache is armed with machine guns, more powerful Hydra rockets and yet more deadly Hellfire missiles. The more powerful the weapon, the fewer can be carried: the player must choose an appropriate weapon for each situation.[6] Enemy weapons range from soldiers with small arms, to anti-aircraft missiles to tanks and armoured cars.[4]

The player's craft has a limited amount of armour, which is depleted as the helicopter is hit by enemy fire. Should the armour reach zero, the craft will be destroyed, losing the player a life. The player must out-manoeuvre enemies to avoid damage, but can replenish armour by means of power-ups or by airlifting rescued friendlies or captives to a landing zone.[3][7] The helicopter has a finite amount of fuel which is steadily depleted as the level progresses. Should the fuel run out the Apache will crash, again costing the player a life. The craft can refuel by collecting fuel barrels: the player must therefore plan mission routes carefully in order to maximise efficiency. The helicopter also carries limited ammunition, which must be replenished by means of ammo crates.[5]

Development and history[]


The game was developed by a team headed by Mike Posehn.[8] In the 1980s, Posehn had previously worked for EA as a software developer. Soon after leaving EA, he obtained a publishing deal with the company for Video Deluxe. The success of the software spurred Posehn to branch out and experiment with a flight simulator titled Fly for the IBM Personal Computer; International Business Machines, however, cancelled the project. Posehn later met with EA president Trip Hawkins who suggested that Posehn develop a game for Sega's Mega Drive, which was soon to be released. He also recommended that Posehn create a game similar to the Apple II game Choplifter; Hawkins felt flying a helicopter and rescuing people was "cool".[9]

Desert Strike underwent few changes from the plans outlined in the original design documents. The initial concept involved smoothly animated vehicles on an isometric playing field. The developers also aimed to include cinematic scenes, similar to The Revenge of Shinobi's introduction sequence. Originally titled Beirut Breakout, the game's scenario was based on the Lebanese Civil War; this was later changed to the Persian Gulf region. A special point system intended to punish players was omitted; the system would have deducted points from the player's score if they destroyed objects that resulted in negative economic and political results. The control scheme was not well received at internal reviews of the game's early versions, and Posehn had to alter his original design to obtain approval for further development.[9]

John Manley, an EA employee, assisted writing the game's program. He and Posehn collaborated to create the game's "SNAFU" system;[Note 1] Posehn wanted the game to have nonlinear gameplay, and Manley felt having a storyline and puzzles would help the player progress. Posehn disliked common gameplay elements like series of bosses and power-ups. As a compromise, the developers only included power-ups to replenish ammunition, armour, and other helicopter resources. To provide the player with options, the SNAFU system was designed to allow players to complete side missions in addition to main objectives. If the player alters the game scenario so that the objectives cannot be completed, the game instructs the player to reset the mission by returning to base.[9]

Inspired by Matchbox toys he played with as a child, Posehn decided to make the size of the game sprites resemble toys. Posehn contacted his friend, Tim Calvin, to assist with designing and creating the vehicle sprites. Though Calvin was a practising dentist at the time, he also had experience with 3D modelling. He rendered 3D models on a computer and reduced them to the desired size. Different views were obtained by rotating the models along a single axis. Calvin added colour to the sprites to meet the production staff's specifications; most required black, white, red, and blue, as well as four shades of colours like green and brown. Calvin eventually felt the rendering process was a waste of resources and attempted to create sprites on the pixel level himself without 3D models. The developers, however, preferred the sprites created from the models over Calvin's freestyle ones.[9]

Posehn had a difficult time working within the Mega Drive's output resolution of 320×240. He wanted to show as much of the playing field as possible without losing the details of the sprites; he felt a lack of graphical detail would make them less interesting. Posehn developed a dynamic camera system to help maintain what he felt was the right balance between the size of the field in view and the size of the game objects. The camera travels on an elliptic curve as the helicopter rotates to change the direction it travels; this puts whatever is in front of the helicopter more in view on screen. Posehn also integrated momentum to the camera movements to smooth transitions. He spent several months working on the physics for the screen and helicopter to ensure realistic movement. Instead of using completely accurate physics, Posehn chose to model movement that he believed players would assume a helicopter would have. He believed players would be put off by physics that didn't match their perceived movement.[9]

Ports and sequels[]

After the success of the Mega Drive version, work began on a conversion for the Amiga,[10] with Gary Roberts (known for a John Madden Amiga conversion) and David Colclough (responsible for Myth) in charge of development.[11] The developers retouched and redrew the graphics and added additional sound effects taken from military training videos.[10] Conversions for other systems include the Atari Lynx,[12] Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Master System, and Game Boy.[9] The game was also ported to the Game Boy Advance, ten years later in 2002, as Desert Strike Advance,[13] and was re-released in 2006 for the PlayStation Portable as part of a budget compilation.[14]

Desert Strike was followed by four sequels—Jungle Strike, Urban Strike, Soviet Strike, and Nuclear Strike—that expanded on the basic gameplay it established. The design staff made efforts to retain game mechanics they felt embodied the core of the original. They believed removing those elements would result in a loss of focus of what attracted fans. As the series moved to more advanced consoles, Posehn became less involved in the programming side of development.[9] Jungle Strike and Urban Strike, both released for the Mega Drive, featured additional vehicles and locations.[8] Soviet Strike, released for Sony's PlayStation and the Sega Saturn in 1996,[15][16] featured 3D graphics,[8] as did Nuclear Strike, released on PC and PlayStation in 1997 and the Nintendo 64 in 1999.[8][17][18][19] A fifth sequel provisionally titled Future Strike was planned,[19] but the game was eventually released as Future Cop: LAPD, a mech-based shooter game.[20]


Review scores
Publication Score
Mean Machines 94%[1]
Computer and Video Games 92%[3]
Amiga Action 90%[21]
Amiga Computing 93%[6]
Amiga Format 87%[4]
CU Amiga 93%[2]
The One 93%[5]

Although the game began development some time before any discussion of an American invasion of Iraq[24] some commentators have felt the game was an attempt to capitalise on then-recent, extensive news coverage of the Gulf War, which had focussed on the use of advanced, impersonal weapons (such as aircraft and guided missiles) to destroy enemy weapons and installations.[8][9][10] Some commentators considered the game's subject matter in bad taste,[3][25] with one magazine reporting an incident of veterans burning copies of the game.[2]

Desert Strike was an immediate commercial success, going straight to the top of sales charts.[26] The game remained a top-10 best seller for months after its release,[10] and was at the time Electronic Arts' highest selling game ever.[11] Mean Machines praised the sophistication and tactical freedom found in the game, as well as its longevity and graphics. The magazine deemed it one of the best shooters on the Mega Drive thus far, as well as the best game released for the console that month, awarding it 94%.[1] Computer and Video Games felt the game's subject matter was somewhat in bad taste, but praised its depth, soundtrack and sound effects. The magazine felt the game was "essential" for Mega Drive owners, awarding a score of 92%.[3] ACE praised the balance of action and strategy, as well as the variety of missions. The magazine felt some of the graphics, particularly the explosions, were a little weak and complained that the fact that the helicopter is not fully rearmed and refuelled after the loss of a life was unduly frustrating.[7]

Amiga Action felt the game was not particularly innovative, but praised its open-ended gameplay, graphics and sound. The reviewer claimed the Amiga version of the game ran more slowly than the Mega Drive version but overall felt the port was "a more than satisfactory translation", awarding the game 90%.[21] Amiga Computing noted the improved graphics and sound over the Mega Drive version and praised the game as "EA's finest moment since Populous". The reviewer also acclaimed the game's "brilliant playability", awarding a score of 93%.[6] Amiga Format commended the "Successful cross between a shoot 'em up and a flight simulator", graphics, sound, varied missions and "tremendous fun" of the game, although the reviewer noted some "occasional glitches" occurring in the sound and graphics. The magazine awarded an overall 87% score.[4] CU Amiga praised the Amiga version's improved graphics and sound, particularly the explosions, though the reviewer derided friendly units' invincibility as unrealistic and complained of poor enemy artificial intelligence. The magazine however said that "All things considered, Desert Strike couldn't be a better game", praising the "fast and frantic" action and "just-one-more-go appeal", awarding a score of 93%.[2] The One praised the mix of action and strategy as well as opining that the Amiga version was a strong improvement over the Mega Drive game. The magazine said the game "plays like a dream" and was "one of the best shoot 'em ups available for any games machine", awarding a score of 93%.[5]

The game was re-released as budget software in 1994, prior to the release of Jungle Strike: Amiga Power awarded 91%,[27] Amiga Format 90%,[28] The One 90%,[29] and CU Amiga 92%.[30] The game was again re-released in 1997: Amiga Computing awarded a score of 90%,[31] Amiga Format 88%,[32] and CU Amiga 90%.[33]


  1. SNAFU is named after the acronym for "Situation Normal; All Fucked Up".


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Julian Rignall & Richard Leadbetter, "Mega Drive Review: Desert Strike", Mean Machines, Feb 1992 (issue 17), pp. 18-21
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Dan Slingsby, "Game Review", CU Amiga, Apr 1993, pp. 60-63
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Paul Rand & Frank O'Connor, "Review: Desert Strike", Computer and Video Games, Mar 1992 (issue 124), pp. 22-23
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Richard Baguley, "Game Review: Desert Strike", Amiga Format, May 1993 (issue 46), pp. 68-69
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Simon Byron, "Review: Desert Strike", The One, Apr 1993 (issue 55), pp. 68-71
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Jonathan Maddock, "Desert Strike", Amiga Computing, Jun 1993 (issue 61) pp. 110-11
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Jim Douglas, "Desert Strike: Return to the Gulf", ACE, Apr 1992 (issue 55), pp. 42-47
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Peter Parrish, Three Strikes And You're Out, EuroGamer, 13 Feb 2008, Accessed 14 Jun 2009
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Matthew Cockburn, "The Making of The Strike Series", Retro Gamer, Jan 2008 (issue 45), pp. 80–84
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Mark Winstanley, "Things To Come: Desert Strike", Amiga Power, March 1993 (issue 23), pp. 18-19
  11. 11.0 11.1 "The Ultimate Autumn Preview", Amiga Power, Oct 1992 (issue 18), p. 48
  12. Robert A. Jung, Desert Strike (Lynx), IGN, 6 July 1999, Accessed 16 June 2009
  13. Craig Harris, Desert Strike Advance, IGN, 3 June 2002, Accessed 16 June 2009
  14. Brendan Sinclair, EA confirms retro Replay, GameSpot, 31 August 2006, Accessed 16 June 2009
  15. Jeff Gerstmann, Soviet Strike Review, GameSpot, 1 Dec 1996, Accessed 16 July 2009
  16. Soviet Strike, GameSpot, Accessed 16 June 2009
  17. Shane Mooney, Nuclear Strike Review, GameSpot, 16 Dec 1997, Accessed 16 June 2009
  18. Glenn Rubenstein, Nuclear Strike Review, GameSpot, 10 Dec 1997, Accessed 16 June 2009
  19. 19.0 19.1 Jeff Gerstmann, Nuclear Strike 64 Review, GameSpot, 17 Dec 1999, Accessed 16 June 2009
  20. Jeff Gerstmann, Future Cop: L.A.P.D. Review, GameSpot, 25 Sept 1998, Accessed 16 June 2009
  21. 21.0 21.1 Alan Bunker, "Action Review: Shoot 'Em Up", Amiga Action, May 1993 (issue 44), pp. 24-27
  22. Desert Strike rankings, GameRankings, Accessed 22 Jan 2010
  23. Desert Strike rankings, GameRankings, Accessed 22 Jan 2010
  24. Cole Machin, "Desert Strike", C&G Magazine, Aug 2010, pp. 30-33
  25. Stuart Campbell, "Mega All-Time Top 100", Mega, October 1992 (issue 1) pp. 76–84 [1]
  26. "First Impressions", CU Amiga, Dec 1992, p. 39
  27. Paul Mellerick, "Budgets: Desert Strike", Amiga Power, Dec 1994 (issue 44), p. 98
  28. Stephen Bradley, "Re-Releases", Amiga Format, Feb 1995 (issue 68), p. 72
  29. Matt Broughton, "Replays!", The One, Feb 1995 (issue 77), p. 62
  30. "Budget Software", CU Amiga, Feb 1995, p. 76
  31. "Desert Strike", Amiga Computing, May 1997 (issue 112), p. 71
  32. Andy Smith, "Re-Releases", Amiga Format, May 1997 (issue 97), p. 37
  33. Martin Davies, "Budget Reviews", CU Amiga, May 1997, p. 45