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Lesotho first formed a unified polity in the early 19th century under king Moshoeshoe I, who united the Sotho clans. Moshoeshoe sought protection from the British against Boer incursions and in 1869 the country turned into the British protectorate of Basutoland. Although surrounded by South Africa on all sides, that country's apartheid policies prevented its integration into South Africa. In 1966 Basutoland became the independent Kingdom of Lesotho.