Codex Gamicus
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{{About|the video game character|other uses of the name Luigi|Luigi (disambiguation)}}
{{Characterbox
 
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{{General VG character
| image = [[Image:Luigirender.jpg|230px]]
 
 
|name=Luigi
| caption = The Green Man
 
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|image=[[File:LuigiNSMBW.png]]
| name = Luigi
 
| game = [[Mario series]]
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|caption= Luigi, as seen in ''[[New Super Mario Bros. Wii]]''
| appearance = ''[[Mario Bros.]]'' (1981)
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|series=''[[Mario (series)|Mario]]''
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|firstgame=''[[Mario Bros.]]'' (1983)
| AKA =
 
| alterego = [[Mr. L]]
+
|creator=[[Shigeru Miyamoto]]
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|voiceactor='''Video games'''<br />[[Mark Graue]] (''[[Hotel Mario]]'')<br />[[Charles Martinet]] (1996-present) <br />
| japanese_name = ルイージ, Ruīji
 
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'''Television'''<br />[[Danny Wells]] (''[[The Super Mario Bros. Super Show]]'')<br />[[Tony Rosato]] (''Super Mario Bros. 3'' and ''Super Mario World'')
| status =
 
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|japanactor=[[Ichirōta Miyagawa]] (''[[Super Mario Bros. 2#BS Super Mario USA Power Challenge|BS Super Mario USA Power Challenge]]'', ''[[Excitebike: Super Mario Cup Battle|Excitebike: Bun Bun Mario Battle Stadium]]'') <br /> [[Yū Mizushima]] (''[[Super Mario Bros.: Peach-Hime Kyushutsu Dai Sakusen!]]'')<br />[[Naoki Tatsuta]] (''OVA trilogy'')
| affiliation =
 
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|liveactor=[[Danny Wells]] (''The Super Mario Bros. Super Show'')<br />[[John Leguizamo]] [[Super Mario Bros. (film)|(film)]]<br />[[Hiroyuki Yabe]] (''Hot Mario Bros.'')
| occupation = Plumber, golfer, tennis pro, baseball player, soccer captain, dancer, etc.
 
| position =
 
| rank =
 
| nationality =
 
| species = human
 
| age =
 
| height =
 
| weight =
 
| gender = Male
 
| bloodtype =
 
| birthdate =
 
| birthplace =
 
| likes =
 
| dislikes = Ghosts
 
| hobbies =
 
| family = [[Mario]] (older brother)
 
| home = [[Mushroom Kingdom]]
 
| powers = [[Thunderhand]]
 
| style =
 
| weapon = Hammer
 
| skill =
 
| spskill =
 
| creator = [[Shigeru Miyamoto]]
 
| actor = [[Charles Martinet]]
 
| trademark = Blue/Geen overalls, Black moustache, Green "L" cap.
 
| notes =
 
 
}}
 
}}
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{{nihongo|'''Luigi'''|ルイージ|Ruīji}} is a [[fictional character]], featured in [[video games]] and related media released by [[Nintendo]]. Created by prominent game designer [[Shigeru Miyamoto]], Luigi is portrayed as the younger [[brother]] of Nintendo's mascot [[Mario]], and appears in many games throughout the [[Mario series|''Mario'' series]], frequently as a [[sidekick]] to his brother.
'''Luigi''' is the often overlooked brother of videogame superstar [[Mario]]. Originally, he was just "Player 2", a [[palette swap]] of Mario. Over time, he became his own character, showing slight differences with Mario. In games such as [[Super Mario Bros. 2]] or [[Super Smash Bros.]], Luigi is often categorized as being faster or jumping higher. However Luigi, in exchange, has little or no traction and has problems stopping in multiple games.
 
   
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Luigi first appeared in the 1983 arcade game ''[[Mario Bros.]]'' as the character controlled by the second player, and retained this role in ''[[Super Mario Bros.]]'', ''[[Super Mario Bros. 3]]'', ''[[Super Mario World]]'', and other titles. The first game where he was available as a primary character was ''[[Super Mario Bros. 2]]''. In more recent appearances, Luigi's role became increasingly restricted to spinoffs such as the [[Mario Party series|''Mario Party'']] and ''[[Mario Kart]]'' series, though he has been featured in a starring role on two occasions: first in the 1991 educational game ''[[Mario is Missing]]'' and later in ''[[Luigi's Mansion]]'' for the [[Gamecube]] in 2001. In both of these games, he is called upon to act as the hero because Mario, the usual hero within the franchise, is in need of rescue.
His first leading role was in the game [[Mario Is Missing!]]. It was not until the [[Nintendo GameCube]] [[launch title]], [[Luigi's Mansion]], that he got to be the main character again. Otherwise, Luigi is a staple of the Mario universe, being included in every mario sports game, and was even given his own arch nemesis, [[Waluigi]], to compare to Mario's [[Wario]].
 
   
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Originally developed as a [[palette swap]] of Mario with a green color scheme instead of red, Luigi has since developed a personality and style of his own. As his role in the ''Mario'' series progressed, Luigi evolved into a physically distinct character, taller and slightly thinner than his brother. Although as kindhearted as Mario, Luigi is portrayed as timid and sometimes cowardly, especially in the presence of ghosts or when forced to do tasks that seemingly are impossible for him to accomplish.
Luigi has been called, "That Green Guy." Luigi's full name is "Luigi Mario". His name is a pun, as "Ruiji" is [[Japan]]ese for 'similar'.
 
   
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==Concept and creation==
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[[File:MarioLuigi MarioBrosSprites.png|thumb|left|The arcade version of ''[[Mario Bros.]]'', released in 1983, featured Luigi (right) in his debut appearance as a [[palette swap]] of Mario.]]
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The events leading to Luigi's creation began in 1981, during the development of ''[[Donkey Kong (video game)|Donkey Kong]]'', where the Nintendo designer Shigeru Miyamoto had created Mario (then known as "[[Mario#Conception and creation|Jumpman]]") hoping that he would be able to recast the character in a variety of different roles in future games.<ref name="hiscore">Demaria, R: "High Score! The Illustrated History of Electronic Games", page 238. McGraw Hill-Osbourne, 2002</ref> Miyamoto had been inspired by the game ''[[Joust (video game)|Joust]]'' to create a game with a simultaneous two-player mode, which led to his development of the game ''[[Mario Bros.]]'' in 1983, with Luigi filling the role of Mario's brother as the second playable character.<ref name="Mario_Bros"/> In accordance with Nintendo's marketing policy of naming and promoting individual characters,<ref name="hiscore"/> the new character was given the name Luigi, which was inspired by a pizza parlor near Nintendo of America's headquarters in [[Redmond, Washington]], called "Mario & Luigi's".<ref name="Mario_Bros">{{cite web|publisher=International Arcade Museum|title=Mario Bros. Arcade|url=http://www.arcade-museum.com/game_detail.php?letter=&game_id=8624|accessdate=2006-08-14}}</ref> While Mario was originally portrayed as a carpenter in ''Donkey Kong'', the duo of Mario and Luigi in ''Mario Bros.'' were styled as [[Italian people|Italian]] plumbers by Miyamoto, on the suggestion of a colleague.<ref name="ignhistory">{{cite web|url=http://au.games.ign.com/articles/833/833615p1.html|title=The History of Super Mario Bros.|last=McLaughlin|first=Rus|date=8 November 2007|publisher=IGN|accessdate=7 January 2010}}</ref> Software constraints of the time - similar to those that gave [[Mario#Conception and creation|Mario]] his distinctive look in ''Donkey Kong'' - meant Luigi's first appearance was restricted to a simple [[palette swap]] of Mario designed to represent the second player. Graphically and in terms of gameplay, the characters were completely identical, except for their color schemes;<ref name="History of Mario 2">{{cite web|publisher=Gamecubicle|url=http://www.gamecubicle.com/features-mario-nintendo_shining_star.htm|accessdate=2006-12-16|title=Nintendo's Shining Star: The History of Mario}}</ref> the green color scheme adopted for Luigi would remain one of his defining physical characteristics in subsequent releases.
   
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After the success of ''Mario Bros.'', Luigi was introduced to a wider audience in 1985 with the release of the console game ''[[Super Mario Bros.]]'' Once again his role was restricted to a palette swap of Mario, functioning as the second-player in a similar fashion to ''Mario Bros.''. The subsequent release of ''[[Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels]]'' in 1986, however, marked the beginning of Luigi's development toward becoming a more distinguished character.As with his previous appearances, Luigi remained a palette swap of Mario. While this version of ''Super Mario Bros. 2'' was released in Japan, it was deemed to be too difficult for American audiences at the time,<ref name="ignhistory" /> leading to the development of an alternative release for the latter; this version would play a key role in shaping Luigi's current appearance.<ref name="ignhistory" /> In 1988, consequently, a version of ''[[Yume Kōjō: Doki Doki Panic]]'' with the graphics altered to represent characters and scenes from the ''Mario'' franchise was released in the United States as ''[[Super Mario Bros. 2]]''. In this release, the character of "Mama" served as the template for Luigi, resulting in his gaining a taller, thinner look, complete with his ubiquitous green color scheme. As this alternative version of ''Super Mario Bros. 2'' was largely spearheaded by the Nintendo of America division, the Japanese headquarters was not immediately influenced by this change in Luigi's appearance. From the 1992 game ''[[Super Mario Kart]]'' onwards, however, Luigi's distinguished appearance from the ''[[Yume Kōjō: Doki Doki Panic]]''-inspired version of ''[[Super Mario Bros. 2]]'' was adopted by Nintendo for both character artwork and in-game appearances.
==Trivia==
 
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* Luigi was first introduced in [[Mario Bros.]], a game that was not originally intended to be [[2-player]] until [[Miyamoto]] saw [[Joust]]. He was very impressed with the concept, and wanted to introduce a second player to the gameplay, Mario's brother. His name is rumored to have come from a pizza parlor nearby the then-new Redmond, Washington headquarters of [[Nintendo of America]] called "Mario and Luigi's."
 
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===Actor portrayal===
* Luigi's evil twin/rival [[Waluigi]], is Luigi's answer to [[Mario]]'s [[Wario]].
 
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Upon debuting on the [[Nintendo 64]], Luigi received a voice, provided by [[Charles Martinet]], who also voices [[Mario]], [[Wario]], [[Waluigi]], and [[Toadsworth]]. Much like his appearance, Luigi's vocal portrayal has fluctuated over the years. When first introduced in ''[[Mario Kart 64]]'', Luigi's voice was considerably lower in pitch than Mario's (although it was high pitched in the Japanese version{{citation needed|date=December 2009}}); however, in ''[[Mario Party]]'', his voice has a much higher pitch, similar to Mario's voice (the same voice from the Japanese ''Mario Kart 64''). He retained this higher voice in ''[[Mario Party 2]]''. In ''[[Mario Golf]]'', ''[[Mario Tennis]]'', and ''[[Mario Party 3]]'', his voice returned to a lower state. Since then, with the exceptions of ''[[Mario Kart Super Circuit]]'' and ''[[Super Smash Bros. Melee]]'', Luigi has consistently had a medium-pitched voice. In ''Mario Kart Super Circuit'', Luigi's voice was the same high voice from the Japanese ''Mario Kart 64''. In ''[[Super Smash Bros.]]'' and ''[[Super Smash Bros. Melee]]'', Luigi's voice is made up of clips from Mario's voice taken from ''[[Super Mario 64]]'', with raised pitches. In ''[[Super Smash Bros. Brawl]]'', he has his own voice instead of a pitched-up version of Mario's.
* His full name is Luigi Mario.
 
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* Luigi's tall, thin, and squirrel characteristics first distinguished him from [[Mario]] in [[Super Mario 2]]. This is because Mario 2 was basically the game [[Doki Doki Panic]] with a few sprite swaps. The original character that Luigi usurped was tall and thin with good jumping skills. These characteristics would later carry over into other games.
 
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==Characteristics==
* Luigi's personality wasn't distinguished from Mario's until [[Luigi's Mansion]], a survival horror that casted Luigi as a reluctant scaredy-cat hero.
 
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<!-- Note that any content in this section, as with everywhere on Wikipedia, must be RELIABLY SOURCED. Original research and speculation, especially that as to character's RELATIONSHIPS, are not permitted on Wikipedia. -->
* Luigi's use as a comic relief character wasn't really fully fleshed out until Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga. His humorous (yet silently mimed) role in this game won many fans over. He now has a small following that appreciates him more than the real hero, Mario.
 
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* In [[New Super Mario Bros.]], players can control Luigi in the single player game by holding the L + R buttons when selecting a save file.
 
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Luigi is portrayed as the taller, younger brother of Mario, and he is usually seen dressed in green with overalls.<ref name="ignluigi" /> Although Luigi is a plumber,<ref name="ignluigi" /> like his brother, other facets of his personality vary from game to game. Luigi always seems nervous and timid but is good-natured and not as quick to anger as his more famous brother.
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===Age===
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Luigi and Mario are sometimes referred to as twins; Mario is slightly older than Luigi (despite Luigi's being taller). In some media, Mario is portrayed as significantly older.
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During the brief Nintendo comic book series of the early 90's, Luigi was depicted as being the elder.{{citation needed|date=September 2010}}
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===Relationship with Daisy===
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While it has not been made official, [[Daisy (Nintendo)|Daisy]] may be Luigi's romantic interest. They were a romantic couple in the [[Super Mario Bros (film)| film]]{{citation needed|date=June 2010}} and in [[Mario Kart Wii]] they are seen in statue dancing together.{{citation needed|date=June 2010}} She was his caddy in in [[NES Open Tournament Golf]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://stars.ign.com/objects/963/963167_biography.html |title=IGN: Princess Daisy Biography |publisher=Stars.ign.com |date=2010-07-07 |accessdate=2010-08-10}}</ref> as [[Princess Peach|Peach]] was to [[Mario]]. Also on Daisy's trophy in [[Super Smash Bros. Melee]], it says that she is possibly Luigi's answer to Mario's Peach.{{citation needed|date=June 2010}}
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==Appearances==
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===''Mario'' series===
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[[File:Luigi vacuum.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Luigi as seen in ''[[Luigi's Mansion]]''. The vacuum was listed as one of the best Nintendo gimmicks by [[GameDaily]].]]
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Luigi's first appearance was in the 1983 arcade game ''[[Mario Bros.]]''<ref name="ignluigi"> {{cite web|url=http://stars.ign.com/objects/924/924288_biography.html |title=Luigi Biography |accessdate=2010-05-09 |publisher=IGN }}</ref> as the character controlled by the second player. He retained this role in ''[[Wrecking Crew (video game)|Wrecking Crew]]''. He later appeared in ''[[Super Mario Bros.]]''<ref name="ignluigi" /> for the NES, and again in ''[[Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels]]'', ''[[Super Mario Bros. 2]]'', ''[[Super Mario Bros. 3]]'', and ''[[Super Mario World]]''. ''Super Mario Bros. 2'' introduced Luigi as the taller of the two brothers, as well as the better jumper. However, ''Super Mario Bros. 3'' and ''Super Mario World'' returned to featuring Luigi as a reskinned Mario. He made a minor appearance in his baby form in ''[[Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island]]''. Beginning with ''[[Super Mario 64]]'', Luigi made no appearances in main ''Mario'' titles, including the sequel ''[[Super Mario Sunshine]]''. However, the [[Super Mario 64 DS|Nintendo DS remake]] of ''Super Mario 64'' features him as a playable character alongside ''[[Mario]]'', ''[[Yoshi]]'', and ''[[Wario]]''. He also received his own starring role in the [[Nintendo GameCube]] video game ''[[Luigi's Mansion]]''. Luigi became playable in the Nintendo DS game ''[[New Super Mario Bros.]]'' as a hidden character, and as a hidden character in the Wii game ''[[Super Mario Galaxy]]'' (also appearing in its sequel, ''[[Super Mario Galaxy 2]]'').<ref>{{cite web|author=Words: Henry Gilbert, GamesRadar US |url=http://www.gamesradar.com/wii/super-mario-galaxy-2/news/luigi-in-mario-galaxy-2-official-japanese-site-says-yes/a-20100422145740537034/g-2009060210524839056 |title=Luigi in Mario Galaxy 2? Official Japanese site says yes, Super Mario Galaxy 2 Wii News |publisher=GamesRadar |date= |accessdate=2010-08-10}}</ref> He also appeared as a playable character in ''[[New Super Mario Bros. Wii]]'', the first cooperative ''Mario'' platforming game since ''[[Super Mario World]]''. Mario is Missing! is the first Mario game to feature only Luigi as a playable character, which did not occur again until ''Luigi's Mansion''.
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===Appearance in other games===
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Luigi appears in several ''Mario'' spin-offs, including ''[[Mario Kart]]'', ''[[Mario Party (series)|Mario Party]]'', and [[Sports games in the Mario series|''Mario'' sports titles]]. He also appears in all installments of the [[Super Smash Bros. (series)|''Super Smash Bros.'' series]] as an unlockable character in each.
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Luigi has appeared in every [[Mario role-playing games|''Mario'' role-playing game]]. While he originally made a cameo appearance in the end credits of ''[[Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars]]'', he appears more prominently in the ''Paper Mario'' series. He is a non-playable character in the original ''[[Paper Mario]]''. In the sequel ''[[Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door]]'', he appears yet again as a non-playable character, going on a separate adventure from Mario's. ''[[Super Paper Mario]]'' features him as a playable character after he is initially brainwashed into working for the antagonist. The ''Mario & Luigi'' series features Luigi as a main protagonist; the events of the game focus on him and his brother Mario. He has appeared in all three ''Mario & Luigi'' games, ''[[Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga]]'', ''[[Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time]]'', and ''[[Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story]]''.
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===Other media===
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{{seealso|Super Mario Bros.: Peach-Hime Kyushutsu Dai Sakusen!|Super Mario Bros. (film)|Super Mario Bros. (TV series)}}
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Luigi made his animated debut in the 1986 [[Original video animation]] ''[[Super Mario Bros.: Peach-Hime Kyushutsu Dai Sakusen!|Super Mario Bros.: The Great Mission to Save Princess Peach]]''. In the film, he was voiced by [[Yū Mizushima]] and had a different color sceme than he has today, sporting a blue cap, blue overalls, and a yellow shirt. This was because he was not yet given a consistent color scheme. In the OVA, Luigi was very greedy and even left Mario at one point to look for coins. He was also a little more serious than his brother Mario, who constantly would daydream about Princess Peach, although he is not as brave as Mario.{{citation needed|date=December 2009}}
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Luigi later made an appearance in the third of a trilogy of OVAs released in 1989, in which the Mario characters acted out the story of Snow White. He appears at the end of the video to save Mario and Peach from the Wicked Queen, portrayed by [[Bowser (character)|Bowser]] (called "Koopa" in Japan).
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Luigi regularly appeared in ''[[The Super Mario Bros. Super Show!]]'', airing from 1989 to 1990, which cast [[Danny Wells]] as both his live-action portrayal and voice. Like his brother, Luigi's voice actor changed in later cartoons, in his case to [[Tony Rosato]]. Even though he was not the starring character in the show, Luigi appeared in every episode of the three [[DiC]] Mario cartoons (91 episodes in total), in one of which Mario himself did not appear.{{citation needed|date=December 2009}}
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Luigi played a different role in the [[Super Mario Bros. (film)|''Super Mario Bros.'' film]], where he was portrayed by [[John Leguizamo]].<ref name="smbfilm">{{cite web| title = At the Movies:Super Mario Bros.| url = http://bventertainment.go.com/tv/buenavista/ebertandroeper/index2.html?sec=6&subsec=Super+Mario+Bros.| accessdate = January 25, 2010}}</ref> He was a more easy-going character in contrast to the cynical Mario (played by [[Bob Hoskins]]<ref name="smbfilm" />) in the film.
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Luigi has also appeared in several ''[[Robot Chicken]]'' sketches, always alongside Mario. In one sketch, he and Mario accidentally appear in [[Vice City]], from the ''[[Grand Theft Auto]]'' series, while another features them competing in a ''[[The Cannonball Run (film)|Cannonball Run]]''-styled car race.
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==Reception==
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Since his appearance in ''[[Super Mario Bros.]]'', Luigi has received generally positive reception. [[Nintendo Power]] listed Luigi as their fifth favourite hero, citing his dependability while describing him as being an underdog. They also listed him as having one of the best mustaches.<ref>{{cite book |title=[[Nintendo Power]] 250th issue! |year=2010 |publisher=[[Future US]] |location=[[South San Francisco, California]] |pages=40, 47 |accessdate=2010-07-24}}</ref> [[GameDaily]] listed the "neglected guy" as one of their top 25 video game archetypes, citing Luigi as an example and stating that he lacks the charisma of his brother [[Mario]] and that he should get another starring role.<ref>{{cite web|author=January 23, 2009 | By: Chris Buffa | More |url=http://www.gamedaily.com/articles/galleries/top-25-video-game-characters-archetypes/?page=9 |title=Gallery and Images |publisher=GameDaily |date=2009-01-23 |accessdate=2010-08-10}}</ref> They also listed Luigi's Poltergust 3000 from ''[[Luigi's Mansion]]'' as one of the top 25 Nintendo gimmicks.<ref>{{cite web|author=June 19, 2009 | By: Chris Buffa | More |url=http://www.gamedaily.com/articles/galleries/top-25-nintendo-gimmicks/?page=4 |title=Gallery and Images |publisher=GameDaily |date=2009-06-19 |accessdate=2010-08-10}}</ref>
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
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==External links==
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*{{imdb character|0008402}}
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*[http://www.nintendo.com Nintendo's official website]
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*{{KLOV game|id=8624|name=Mario Bros.}}
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{{Mario series characters}}
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[[Category:Fictional basketball players]]
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[[Category:Fictional characters from New York City]]
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[[Category:Fictional golfers]]
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[[Category:Fictional American people of Italian descent]]
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[[Category:Fictional karateka]] <!--DiC Animation-->
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[[Category:Fictional plumbers]]
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[[Category:Fictional racecar drivers]] <!--Mario Kart series-->
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[[Category:Fictional sportspeople]]
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[[Category:Fictional twins]]
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[[Category:Film characters]]
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[[Category:Male video game characters]]
 
[[Category:Mario characters]]
 
[[Category:Mario characters]]
[[Category:Super Smash Brothers characters]]
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[[Category:Nintendo protagonists]]
[[Category:Main protagonists]]
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[[Category:Super Smash Bros. fighters]]
[[Category:Male characters]]
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[[Category:Video game sidekicks]]
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[[Category:1983 introductions]]
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Revision as of 21:22, 18 September 2010

This article is about the video game character. For other uses of the name Luigi, see Luigi (disambiguation).
Luigi
File:LuigiNSMBW.png
Luigi, as seen in New Super Mario Bros. Wii
Series Mario
First game Mario Bros. (1983)
Created by Shigeru Miyamoto
Voiced by (English) Video games
Mark Graue (Hotel Mario)
Charles Martinet (1996-present)

Television
Danny Wells (The Super Mario Bros. Super Show)
Tony Rosato (Super Mario Bros. 3 and Super Mario World)

Voiced by (Japanese) Ichirōta Miyagawa (BS Super Mario USA Power Challenge, Excitebike: Bun Bun Mario Battle Stadium)
Yū Mizushima (Super Mario Bros.: Peach-Hime Kyushutsu Dai Sakusen!)
Naoki Tatsuta (OVA trilogy)
Live action actor(s) Danny Wells (The Super Mario Bros. Super Show)
John Leguizamo (film)
Hiroyuki Yabe (Hot Mario Bros.)

Luigi (ルイージ Ruīji?) is a fictional character, featured in video games and related media released by Nintendo. Created by prominent game designer Shigeru Miyamoto, Luigi is portrayed as the younger brother of Nintendo's mascot Mario, and appears in many games throughout the Mario series, frequently as a sidekick to his brother.

Luigi first appeared in the 1983 arcade game Mario Bros. as the character controlled by the second player, and retained this role in Super Mario Bros., Super Mario Bros. 3, Super Mario World, and other titles. The first game where he was available as a primary character was Super Mario Bros. 2. In more recent appearances, Luigi's role became increasingly restricted to spinoffs such as the Mario Party and Mario Kart series, though he has been featured in a starring role on two occasions: first in the 1991 educational game Mario is Missing and later in Luigi's Mansion for the Gamecube in 2001. In both of these games, he is called upon to act as the hero because Mario, the usual hero within the franchise, is in need of rescue.

Originally developed as a palette swap of Mario with a green color scheme instead of red, Luigi has since developed a personality and style of his own. As his role in the Mario series progressed, Luigi evolved into a physically distinct character, taller and slightly thinner than his brother. Although as kindhearted as Mario, Luigi is portrayed as timid and sometimes cowardly, especially in the presence of ghosts or when forced to do tasks that seemingly are impossible for him to accomplish.

Concept and creation

File:MarioLuigi MarioBrosSprites.png

The arcade version of Mario Bros., released in 1983, featured Luigi (right) in his debut appearance as a palette swap of Mario.

The events leading to Luigi's creation began in 1981, during the development of Donkey Kong, where the Nintendo designer Shigeru Miyamoto had created Mario (then known as "Jumpman") hoping that he would be able to recast the character in a variety of different roles in future games.[1] Miyamoto had been inspired by the game Joust to create a game with a simultaneous two-player mode, which led to his development of the game Mario Bros. in 1983, with Luigi filling the role of Mario's brother as the second playable character.[2] In accordance with Nintendo's marketing policy of naming and promoting individual characters,[1] the new character was given the name Luigi, which was inspired by a pizza parlor near Nintendo of America's headquarters in Redmond, Washington, called "Mario & Luigi's".[2] While Mario was originally portrayed as a carpenter in Donkey Kong, the duo of Mario and Luigi in Mario Bros. were styled as Italian plumbers by Miyamoto, on the suggestion of a colleague.[3] Software constraints of the time - similar to those that gave Mario his distinctive look in Donkey Kong - meant Luigi's first appearance was restricted to a simple palette swap of Mario designed to represent the second player. Graphically and in terms of gameplay, the characters were completely identical, except for their color schemes;[4] the green color scheme adopted for Luigi would remain one of his defining physical characteristics in subsequent releases.

After the success of Mario Bros., Luigi was introduced to a wider audience in 1985 with the release of the console game Super Mario Bros. Once again his role was restricted to a palette swap of Mario, functioning as the second-player in a similar fashion to Mario Bros.. The subsequent release of Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels in 1986, however, marked the beginning of Luigi's development toward becoming a more distinguished character.As with his previous appearances, Luigi remained a palette swap of Mario. While this version of Super Mario Bros. 2 was released in Japan, it was deemed to be too difficult for American audiences at the time,[3] leading to the development of an alternative release for the latter; this version would play a key role in shaping Luigi's current appearance.[3] In 1988, consequently, a version of Yume Kōjō: Doki Doki Panic with the graphics altered to represent characters and scenes from the Mario franchise was released in the United States as Super Mario Bros. 2. In this release, the character of "Mama" served as the template for Luigi, resulting in his gaining a taller, thinner look, complete with his ubiquitous green color scheme. As this alternative version of Super Mario Bros. 2 was largely spearheaded by the Nintendo of America division, the Japanese headquarters was not immediately influenced by this change in Luigi's appearance. From the 1992 game Super Mario Kart onwards, however, Luigi's distinguished appearance from the Yume Kōjō: Doki Doki Panic-inspired version of Super Mario Bros. 2 was adopted by Nintendo for both character artwork and in-game appearances.

Actor portrayal

Upon debuting on the Nintendo 64, Luigi received a voice, provided by Charles Martinet, who also voices Mario, Wario, Waluigi, and Toadsworth. Much like his appearance, Luigi's vocal portrayal has fluctuated over the years. When first introduced in Mario Kart 64, Luigi's voice was considerably lower in pitch than Mario's (although it was high pitched in the Japanese version[citation needed]); however, in Mario Party, his voice has a much higher pitch, similar to Mario's voice (the same voice from the Japanese Mario Kart 64). He retained this higher voice in Mario Party 2. In Mario Golf, Mario Tennis, and Mario Party 3, his voice returned to a lower state. Since then, with the exceptions of Mario Kart Super Circuit and Super Smash Bros. Melee, Luigi has consistently had a medium-pitched voice. In Mario Kart Super Circuit, Luigi's voice was the same high voice from the Japanese Mario Kart 64. In Super Smash Bros. and Super Smash Bros. Melee, Luigi's voice is made up of clips from Mario's voice taken from Super Mario 64, with raised pitches. In Super Smash Bros. Brawl, he has his own voice instead of a pitched-up version of Mario's.

Characteristics

Luigi is portrayed as the taller, younger brother of Mario, and he is usually seen dressed in green with overalls.[5] Although Luigi is a plumber,[5] like his brother, other facets of his personality vary from game to game. Luigi always seems nervous and timid but is good-natured and not as quick to anger as his more famous brother.

Age

Luigi and Mario are sometimes referred to as twins; Mario is slightly older than Luigi (despite Luigi's being taller). In some media, Mario is portrayed as significantly older.

During the brief Nintendo comic book series of the early 90's, Luigi was depicted as being the elder.[citation needed]

Relationship with Daisy

While it has not been made official, Daisy may be Luigi's romantic interest. They were a romantic couple in the film[citation needed] and in Mario Kart Wii they are seen in statue dancing together.[citation needed] She was his caddy in in NES Open Tournament Golf[6] as Peach was to Mario. Also on Daisy's trophy in Super Smash Bros. Melee, it says that she is possibly Luigi's answer to Mario's Peach.[citation needed]

Appearances

Mario series

File:Luigi vacuum.jpg

Luigi as seen in Luigi's Mansion. The vacuum was listed as one of the best Nintendo gimmicks by GameDaily.

Luigi's first appearance was in the 1983 arcade game Mario Bros.[5] as the character controlled by the second player. He retained this role in Wrecking Crew. He later appeared in Super Mario Bros.[5] for the NES, and again in Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels, Super Mario Bros. 2, Super Mario Bros. 3, and Super Mario World. Super Mario Bros. 2 introduced Luigi as the taller of the two brothers, as well as the better jumper. However, Super Mario Bros. 3 and Super Mario World returned to featuring Luigi as a reskinned Mario. He made a minor appearance in his baby form in Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island. Beginning with Super Mario 64, Luigi made no appearances in main Mario titles, including the sequel Super Mario Sunshine. However, the Nintendo DS remake of Super Mario 64 features him as a playable character alongside Mario, Yoshi, and Wario. He also received his own starring role in the Nintendo GameCube video game Luigi's Mansion. Luigi became playable in the Nintendo DS game New Super Mario Bros. as a hidden character, and as a hidden character in the Wii game Super Mario Galaxy (also appearing in its sequel, Super Mario Galaxy 2).[7] He also appeared as a playable character in New Super Mario Bros. Wii, the first cooperative Mario platforming game since Super Mario World. Mario is Missing! is the first Mario game to feature only Luigi as a playable character, which did not occur again until Luigi's Mansion.

Appearance in other games

Luigi appears in several Mario spin-offs, including Mario Kart, Mario Party, and Mario sports titles. He also appears in all installments of the Super Smash Bros. series as an unlockable character in each.

Luigi has appeared in every Mario role-playing game. While he originally made a cameo appearance in the end credits of Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars, he appears more prominently in the Paper Mario series. He is a non-playable character in the original Paper Mario. In the sequel Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door, he appears yet again as a non-playable character, going on a separate adventure from Mario's. Super Paper Mario features him as a playable character after he is initially brainwashed into working for the antagonist. The Mario & Luigi series features Luigi as a main protagonist; the events of the game focus on him and his brother Mario. He has appeared in all three Mario & Luigi games, Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga, Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time, and Mario & Luigi: Bowser's Inside Story.

Other media

Template:Seealso Luigi made his animated debut in the 1986 Original video animation Super Mario Bros.: The Great Mission to Save Princess Peach. In the film, he was voiced by Yū Mizushima and had a different color sceme than he has today, sporting a blue cap, blue overalls, and a yellow shirt. This was because he was not yet given a consistent color scheme. In the OVA, Luigi was very greedy and even left Mario at one point to look for coins. He was also a little more serious than his brother Mario, who constantly would daydream about Princess Peach, although he is not as brave as Mario.[citation needed]

Luigi later made an appearance in the third of a trilogy of OVAs released in 1989, in which the Mario characters acted out the story of Snow White. He appears at the end of the video to save Mario and Peach from the Wicked Queen, portrayed by Bowser (called "Koopa" in Japan).

Luigi regularly appeared in The Super Mario Bros. Super Show!, airing from 1989 to 1990, which cast Danny Wells as both his live-action portrayal and voice. Like his brother, Luigi's voice actor changed in later cartoons, in his case to Tony Rosato. Even though he was not the starring character in the show, Luigi appeared in every episode of the three DiC Mario cartoons (91 episodes in total), in one of which Mario himself did not appear.[citation needed]

Luigi played a different role in the Super Mario Bros. film, where he was portrayed by John Leguizamo.[8] He was a more easy-going character in contrast to the cynical Mario (played by Bob Hoskins[8]) in the film.

Luigi has also appeared in several Robot Chicken sketches, always alongside Mario. In one sketch, he and Mario accidentally appear in Vice City, from the Grand Theft Auto series, while another features them competing in a Cannonball Run-styled car race.

Reception

Since his appearance in Super Mario Bros., Luigi has received generally positive reception. Nintendo Power listed Luigi as their fifth favourite hero, citing his dependability while describing him as being an underdog. They also listed him as having one of the best mustaches.[9] GameDaily listed the "neglected guy" as one of their top 25 video game archetypes, citing Luigi as an example and stating that he lacks the charisma of his brother Mario and that he should get another starring role.[10] They also listed Luigi's Poltergust 3000 from Luigi's Mansion as one of the top 25 Nintendo gimmicks.[11]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Demaria, R: "High Score! The Illustrated History of Electronic Games", page 238. McGraw Hill-Osbourne, 2002
  2. 2.0 2.1 Mario Bros. Arcade. International Arcade Museum. Retrieved on 2006-08-14
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 McLaughlin, Rus (8 November 2007). The History of Super Mario Bros.. IGN. Retrieved on 7 January 2010
  4. Nintendo's Shining Star: The History of Mario. Gamecubicle. Retrieved on 2006-12-16
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Luigi Biography. IGN. Retrieved on 2010-05-09
  6. IGN: Princess Daisy Biography. Stars.ign.com (2010-07-07). Retrieved on 2010-08-10
  7. Words: Henry Gilbert, GamesRadar US. Luigi in Mario Galaxy 2? Official Japanese site says yes, Super Mario Galaxy 2 Wii News. GamesRadar. Retrieved on 2010-08-10
  8. 8.0 8.1 At the Movies:Super Mario Bros.. Retrieved on January 25, 2010
  9. Nintendo Power 250th issue!. South San Francisco, California: Future US. 2010. pp. 40, 47. 
  10. January 23, 2009 (2009-01-23). Gallery and Images. GameDaily. Retrieved on 2010-08-10
  11. June 19, 2009 (2009-06-19). Gallery and Images. GameDaily. Retrieved on 2010-08-10

External links

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