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The Seminole people emerged in the 18th century through a process of ethnogenesis, out of groups of lower Creek emigrants who fled the encroachment of White settlers in the U.S. state of Georgia and elsewhere, south to the Florida peninsula which at that time was under Spanish control. They intermingled with remnants of other tribes plus a significant number of Black African freedmen. Seminole leaders sided with the United States during the so-called Seminole wars against Spain, the outcome of which was the ceding of Florida to the U.S., and the removal of a majority of Seminoles to Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. Together with the Cherokee, Choctaw, Muskogee, and Chickasaw, the Seminole are known as one of the "Five Civilised Tribes" for their relatively amiable relationships with White European settlers during the early era of U.S. expansion.