Codex Gamicus

Simulation racing video games
Basic Information

Simulation racing video games focus on intense realism. Physics plays a big role in the realism of this genre. These games are not the easiest to pick up and play but they're extremely popular otherwise because of their realism, with such games as Forza Motorsport and especially Gran Turismo at the head of the pack.


Sim (simulated) racing is the collective term for computer software (i.e. a vehicle simulation game) that attempts to accurately simulate auto racing (a racing video game), complete with real-world variables such as fuel usage, damage, tire wear and grip, and suspension settings.[1] To be competitive in sim racing, a driver must understand all aspects of car handling that make real-world racing so difficult,[2] such as threshold braking, how to maintain control of a car as the tires lose traction, and how properly to enter and exit a turn without sacrificing speed. It is this level of difficulty that distinguishes sim racing from "arcade" driving games where real-world variables are taken out of the equation and the principal objective is to create a sense of speed as opposed to a sense of realism.[2]

In general, sim racing applications, such as rFactor, Gran Turismo, Grand Prix Legends, iRacing, Virtual Grand Prix 3, Game Stock Car, GT Legends, F1 Challenge '99-'02, GTR2, Live for Speed, Race 07, netKar Pro, TORCS, and X Motor Racing, are less popular than arcade-style games, mainly because much more skill and practice is required to master them. However, sims such as Gran Turismo, NASCAR Racing 2003 Season and Richard Burns Rally have achieved worldwide fame. Also, because of the demands on the computer system, race sims require faster computers to run effectively, as well as a somewhat costly steering wheel and pedals for the throttle and brakes. Most arcade-style driving games can be played with a simple joystick controller or even a mouse and keyboard.

With the development of online racing capability, the ability to drive against human opponents as opposed to computer AI is the closest many will come to driving real cars on a real track. Even those who race in real-world competition use simulations for practice or for entertainment.[3] Continued development of the physics engine software that forms the basis of these sims, as well as improved hardware (providing tactile feedback), the software gets ever closer to reality.


Early arcade years[]

Prior to the division between arcade-style racing and sim racing, the earliest attempts at providing driving simulation experiences were arcade racing video games, dating back to Pole Position,[4] a 1982 arcade game developed by Namco, which the game's publisher Atari publicized for its "unbelievable driving realism" in providing a Formula 1 experience behind a racing wheel at the time. It featured other AI cars to race against, crashes caused by collisions with other vehicles and roadside signs, and introduced a qualifying lap concept where the player needs to complete a time trial before they can compete in Grand Prix races.[5] It also pioneered the third-person rear-view perspective used in most racing games since then, with the track's vanishing point swaying side to side as the player approaches corners, accurately simulating forward movement into the distance.[6]

Pole Position II was released in 1983 and featured several improvements like giving the player the choice of different race courses.[7] TX-1, developed by Tatsumi in 1983,[8] was licensed to Namco,[9] who in turn licensed it to Atari in America,[9] thus the game is considered a successor to Pole Position II.[9] TX-1, however, placed a greater emphasis on realism, with details such as forcing players to brake or downshift the gear during corners to avoid the risk of losing control, and let go of the accelerator when going into a skid in order to regain control of the steering. It also used force feedback technology, which caused the steering wheel to vibrate, and the game also featured a unique three-screen arcade display for a more three-dimensional perspective of the track. It also introduced nonlinear gameplay by allowing players to choose which path to drive through after each checkpoint, eventually leading to one of eight possible final destinations.[9] An early attempt at creating a home driving simulator was Tomy's 1983 game Turnin' Turbo Dashboard, the first home video game to feature a steering wheel controller.[10]

In 1985, SEGA's Hang-On, a popular Grand Prix style rear-view motorbike racer,[11] was considered the first full-body-experience video game,[12] and was regarded as the first motorbike simulator for its realism at the time, in both the handling of the player's motorbike and the AI of the computer-controlled motorcyclists.[11] It used force feedback technology and was also one of the first arcade games to use 16-bit graphics and SEGA's "Super Scaler" technology that allowed pseudo-3D sprite-scaling at high frame rates.[13]

The following year, in 1986, Konami released WEC Le Mans, an early car driving simulator based on the 24 Hours of Le Mans. It attempted to realistically simulate car driving, with the car jumping up and down, turning back and forth, and spinning up to 180 degres, with an emphasis on acceleration, breaking, and gear shifting, along with the need for counter-steering to avoid spin-outs. It also featured a day-night cycle, accurately simulated courses approved by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest, and force feedback to simulate road vibration in the form of a vibrating steering wheel that reacts to the driver's acceleration and off-road bumps.[14] With OutRun released the same year, a distinction began emerging between arcade-style and simulation racers, [1] with OutRun establishing what would later be known as arcade-style racing and WEC Le Mans laying the foundations for what would later be known as simulation racing.

The first racing game with simulation pretensions on a home system is believed to have been REVS, released in 1986. REVS was a Formula 3 sim that delivered a semi-realistic driving experience by Geoff Crammond that ran on the 8-bit Commodore 64 and BBC. REVS had a big fan base in England, but not so much in the United States.[15] This was then superseded by the widely popular Hard Drivin' which was an arcade and home computing staple released in 1989, and one of the most widely played simulators up to that point.

Emergence of sim racing genre[]

Sim racing is generally acknowledged to have really taken off in 1989 with the introduction of Papyrus Design Group's Indianapolis 500: The Simulation, designed by David Kaemmer and Omar Khudari on 16-bit computer hardware. The game is often generally regarded as the personal computer's first true auto racing simulation. Unlike most other racing games at the time, Indianapolis 500 attempted to simulate realistic physics and telemetry, such as its portrayal of the relationship between the four contact patches and the pavement, as well as the loss of grip when making a high-speed turn, forcing the player to adopt a proper racing line and believable throttle-to-brake interaction. It also featured a garage facility to allow players to enact modifications to their vehicle, including adjustments to the tires, shocks and wings.[15] With Indy 500, players could race the full 500 miles (800 km), where even a blowout after 450 miles (720 km) would take the player out of the competition. The simulation sold over 200,000 copies. It was around this time that sim racing began truly distinguishing itself from arcade-style racing.

The next major milestone was the 1992 release of Formula One Grand Prix (AKA World Circuit in some markets) by MicroProse, also developed by Geoff Crammond. This moved the genre along significantly. Multiplayer was made possible by allowing different drivers to take turns, and racers could also hook up their machines for racing via a null modem cable. This only allowed two drivers to race. Leagues emerged where drivers would submit records of their single player races to compare with other drivers. This is the first sim in which drafting/slip streaming was possible.

Papyrus followed up Indy 500 with IndyCar Racing in 1993 and F1GP was surpassed in all areas.[citation needed] Papyrus later released more tracks and a final expansion included the Indy 500 track plus a paintkit. Now drivers could easily customize their cars. IndyCar Racing sold around 300,000 copies.

The first variant of Papyrus' NASCAR series was launched in 1994. In SVGA (640x480) it pushed the PCs of the time to the limit. Suddenly a resolution of 320x200 seemed a poor option and NASCAR was the race sim of choice for anyone with a capable PC, particularly in North America. It was the first sim where cars no longer looked like boxes. It keyed in on sophisticated physics modeling.[citation needed] NASCAR 1 sold over one million units.[citation needed] Moreover, the first real online racing started with NASCAR 1 using the "Hawaii" dial-in servers and it was not uncommon for these early sim racers to have $300 to $1500 phone bills. Online racing had seen its first true realization, and to many, this was the dawn of "real" sim racing.[16]

1995 saw the release of IndyCar Racing II, updating the first version with the new NASCAR graphics engine. A year later, MicroProse released the successor to F1GP, Grand Prix 2, to much anticipation. GP2 became successful not just because of its detailed and thorough simulation of the 1994 Formula 1 season, but also because it was customizable; this was achievable by way of the online community. Players could change everything about the game: drivers, teams, graphics, physics, car shapes, and eventually even the racetracks. Offline leagues reached their peak with GP2 in 1998.[citation needed]

In 1996, NASCAR 2 was released, further improving the original, and the number of sim racers exploded. The TEN multiplayer hosting service was introduced and went live in November 1997 with the backing of NASCAR and the online sim racing community grew.[citation needed]

1997 saw the release of Polyphony Digital's Gran Turismo, which was in production for five years since 1992,[17] and is considered by some to be the most influential console racing game of all time.[18] As the most realistic driving simulation seen on a console up until that time, it offered meticulous tuning options and introduced an open-ended career mode where players had to undertake driving tests to acquire driving licenses, earn their way into races, and choose their own career path.[18] Later games introduced endurance racing events, such as the 1000 km Suzuka, 24 Hours of Le Mans and 24 Hours Nürburgring.[19] The Gran Turismo series has since become the second best-selling racing game franchise to date, having sold over 61.41 million units worldwide,[20] only behind the more arcade-style Need for Speed series' 100 million copies.

Graphic accelerators era[]

Graphics accelerator cards brought a new level of realism to the graphics and physics of sim racing games. These new graphics processing units provided texture mapping, antialiasing, particle effects (i.e. fog, rain and snow), HDR and the capability to perform polygonal calculations faster, while taking the load off of the main processor. F1 Racing Simulation by Ubisoft, was among the first to utilize the new technology in 1997.

After years of development, Microprose released Grand Prix 3, which used a more modern graphics engine and featured the same customizable structure of GP2. GP3 was ultimately seen as a bit of a disappointment though, lacking proper network-multiplayer-support and using only an evolution of the GP2 graphic-engine. Still, its similarity allowed easy track conversions back and forth.

Another milestone in sim racing came in 1998 with the release of Grand Prix Legends (GPL) from Papyrus, based on 1967 F1 season. It was hailed as outstanding in all areas, but especially the physics and online multiplayer capability. For many, their first real experience with online racing was GPL, or the later variants of NASCAR that used the GPL engine. The release of a third-party add-on for GPL—VROC (Virtual Racers Online Connection) -- allowed racers to join together online and race in leagues.

Despite its age, GPL has remained a top class sim even in 2008 thanks to a strong community, who collectively have updated the graphics to utilize the current CPU and graphics capabilities and have created loads of add-on tracks of a high quality. Modding teams have managed to create new physics sets, and a 1965 1966 and 1969 variants are now available with many improvements over the original.

Wired magazine wrote an in-depth article about racing sims called Hard Drive in their February 1997 issue.[2] TORCS was created in 1997, as an open source car racing simulator.

SEGA's 1999 arcade game Ferrari F355 Challenge, later ported to the Dreamcast in 2000, was considered the most accurate simulation of the Ferrari F355 possible up until that time; its focus on realism was considered unusual for an arcade game at the time.[21] The realism was further heightened by the sit-in cabinet, with a simulated Ferrari dashboard, force feedback, and three screens increasing the field of vision. [3] [4] F355 Challenge was one of the most realistic racing sims up until the early 2000's.

Since GPL, Image Space Incorporated has produced Sports Car GT in 1999 and the F1 series starting in 2000, all published by Electronic Arts. Unlike the Papyrus sims, the physics are easily modified, and a large community has developed dedicated to modifying the ISI sims. One such modding team, Simbin, have created their own company and have released several games, including GTR - FIA GT Racing Game, GT Legends, GTR 2, RACE - The Official WTCC Game, RACE 07, STCC - The Game, GTR Evolution and Race On.[22]

Recent developments[]

David Kaemmer, co-founder of the now-defunct Papyrus,[23] has released iRacing, a new multiplayer-oriented simulation run on a subscription model. Rally fans have a hardcore racing simulator with Richard Burns Rally. Eero Piitulainen, lead physics programmer for Richard Burns Rally, is currently developing a new multi-class online racing simulator called Driver's Republic. A team of enthusiasts from Italy, who used to create modifications for Richard Burns Rally, have started making gRally, a highly realistic rally sim intented to bring realistic rally to new generations, and also open up for modding. A small, 3-man team is developing Live for Speed, which has just announced the third, and final phase of a 3-phase development cycle. Phase 2 brought in many updates, including the first real cars (The BMW Sauber F1 car being included in those), however for Phase 3 the first real-world circuit has been announced - The Rockingham Motor Speedway.[24] The circuit will be laser-scanned for absolute accuracy. Also coming soon is another real-world car - the new VW Scirocco; for which several physics changes have had to be made to ensure a fully accurate simulation.[25] In August 2005, ISI released rFactor, a highly modifiable sim based on their gMotor2 physics engine. Notable for its initial download-only distribution model, rFactor originally released with fictional cars and tracks. ISI's encouragement of the enthusiast mod community has led to an unprecedented number of add-ons, including 800-horsepower-stock cars. Subsequent releases of rFactor featured Formula One cars and recreations of real track layouts under fictitious names.

SimBin Studios released GTR 2, (itself a sequel to GTR - FIA GT Racing Game) in September 2006, a sports car racing simulator developed with input from the actual racing teams which took part in the FIA GT 2003 / 2004 seasons (FIA GT Championship). It has received widespread acclaim and has been noted for its high levels of technical and driving realism with regards to sports car racing. Paolo Cattani has developed Virtual Grand Prix 3 (published by A&M), notable for its quasi-finite elements tyre model and its clever Artificial Intelligence. AutoSimSport Magazine awarded VGP3 as "the 3rd best simulator of the year" in 2009.[26] Kunos Simulazioni has released netKar Pro, a new version of netKar which attempts to bring together highly accurate physics and sound modeling as well as DirectX 9 graphics. Development tools for modifying NKP have been announced. The Sim Factory has announced a partnership with the ARCA Racing series and Image Space Incorporated to create a realistic and sanctioned online racing simulation. The simulation is currently being developed using input from real drivers, real crew chiefs, real data, and engineers specializing in all the areas needed to recreate a simulated stock car racing environment. More recently, Eugene Cojocar of Exotypos released X Motor Racing.,[27] and Reiza Studios released Game Stock Car (GSC).[28]

In 2011, Kunos Simulazioni started developing Assetto Corsa, a highly realistic sim built on the experience from netKar Pro and Ferrari Virtual Academy, but on an entirely new engine, with an emphasis on customization and extensive modification possibilities. It is due to be released before the end of 2013.


It was around the turn of the millennium that the technology was reaching a maturity that enticed pioneers to establish dedicated race venues. Sim Racing Ltd in the UK developed the concept of dedicated race venues for drivers and sim drivers alike. Their first offering came in the form of a range of drivers challenge activities. Sim Racing Ltd are now growing their range of offerings across the UK and beyond, one of their UK venues is Lets Race near Gatwick airport.[29] Hyperstim are also opening a number of race centres around the world. Recently a new centre has started in Holland. This centre contains 20 dedicated simulators connected via local area network, using rFactor and GTR as main software simulators. Recently venues have opened in the US when in August 2011 Simraceway opened a 30,000 square-foot performance driving facility in Sonoma, Calif.[30] helping to make simulation racing more mainstream and increasing the potential for many more people to enjoy motor sports as a participant activity.

The oldest and longest running simulator racing website is The Pits.[31] Started in 1995 when an entrepreneur editor from the UK wanted a place to host his modification for the Indycar Racing II sim, it has continued to serve the community with a multitude of firsts in the simulator racing world, as well as downloads and helpful information. Some of the firsts include the first complete mod (or modification) for racing simulation software, The Pits Touring Car Championship, released in 1997.

One of the latest trends in simulation racing is towards broadcasting the events. There are a growing number of leagues that are now running flag to flag coverage of their events. And like other forms of motorsports the fans can outnumber the drivers by many. There are several places for fans to go to find out more about simulator racing. Since January 2005, AutoSimSport Magazine has provided industry leading content for sim racers.[26] Beginning its 4th year of publication, AutoSimSport Magazine continues to provide quality media for sim racers the world over to keep current with the latest advancements in simulators, hardware, and where the sim racing industry is headed. Since 2010, "Crash Cast FM" is a new simracing radioshow/podcast.

Online communities[]

In recent years as international interest has grown, so has the online community and underground racing circuit. These communities act as a focal point for users around the world to engage with one another co-ordinate racing schedules, exchange modded cars, tracks, discuss hardware configurations and facilitate other communications.

See also[]


  1. Bob Bates (2004). Game Design (2 ed.). Course Technology PTR. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-59200-493-5. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 More about the (online) racing simulator. Retrieved on 2008-02-04
  3. Video Game Review. Retrieved on 2008-04-07
  4. IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Council & IEEE Electron Devices Society (October 1–3, 2000), 2000 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference proceedings, p. 65, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, ISBN 0-7803-5971-2
  5. Pole Position at Museum of the Game
  6. Bernard Perron & Mark J. P. Wolf (2008), Video game theory reader two, p. 157, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-96282-X
  7. Pole Position II at Museum of the Game
  8. TX-1, The Arcade Flyer Archive, Killer List of Videogames
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 TX-1 at Museum of the Game
  10. The top ten retro gaming secrets: Steering wheel controllers are older than you think,
  11. 11.0 11.1 Hang On at Museum of the Game
  12. GameCenter CX - 2nd Season, Episode 13
  13. IGN Presents the History of SEGA: World War, IGN
  14. WEC Le Mans 24 at Museum of the Game
  15. 15.0 15.1 The History of Papyrus Racing - Page 2. Gamespot. Retrieved on 2008-04-07
  16. Rob Riddell (February 1997). Hard Drive — The parallel universe of auto racing simulation is about to collide with reality. Retrieved on 2011-01-13
  17. Gran Turismo's creator takes a fifth stab at a perfect racing game | VentureBeat
  18. 18.0 18.1 The Greatest Games of All Time: Gran Turismo, GameSpot
  19. Gran Turismo 4 event list, 2004
  20. 5.5 Million Copies of GT5 Sold, Series Tops 60 Million
  21. F355 Challenge: It's hard. It's hard. And it's hard. But god, is it worth it.. IGN (September 19, 2000). Retrieved on 15 April 2012
  22. Simbin Game titles. Retrieved on 2008-02-04
  23. The History of Papyrus Racing - Page 1. Gamespot. Retrieved on 2008-04-07
  24. Live For Speed - Rockingham coming to LFS. Retrieved on 2009-10-04
  25. Live For Speed - New Tyre Physics. Retrieved on 2009-10-04
  26. 26.0 26.1 AutoSimSport Media LLC - The Home of AutoSimSport Magazine. Retrieved on 2008-02-04
  27. Interview with Eugene Cojocar for AutoSimSport. Retrieved on 2007-03-08
  28. Game Stock Car – Now Available!. Retrieved on 2011-07-21
  30. SimRaceway Opens Real-World Driving School. Retrieved on 2011-09-01
  31. The Pits - 10 years:1995-2005. Retrieved on 2008-04-09